The quest to understand the fundamental building blocks of matter has captivated human curiosity for centuries. Ancient Greek philosophers like Democritus proposed the concept of indivisible particles called atoms, but it took thousands of years for scientific evidence to support this idea. Throughout history, various cultures had their theories about the composition of matter, including the four elements theory (earth, air, fire, and water) by Empedocles and Aristotle, along with similar ideas in Indian and Chinese philosophy. Medieval alchemists built upon these theories, and Muslim chemists made significant contributions to early chemistry.
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